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In Northern Asia Siberia has been part of Russia since the seventeenth century, it covers a vast area and stretches from the Arctic Ocean to the borders of Mongolia and China. The climate varies dramatically and average annual temperatures are only 0.5 degrees centigrade and in the northern parts January can expect -20 degrees and colder. The huge tracts of land are very rich in minerals and hold some of the world’s largest deposits of gold, nickel, silver, diamonds and many more including vast sources of gas and coal. There are huge glacial areas where even today whole mammoth fossils are being found (Mammoths became extinct thousands of years ago). This area is fairly inhospitable but is home to the Siberian Tiger, Caribou and Siberian Huskies, dogs that have very thick coats.